SunRice | How is rice grown?
Rice-paddy

Howis rice grown?

Australian grown rice

Follow rice grower John Hawkins as he grows Koshihikari rice from a seedling to a rice plant. Koshihikari is one of SunRice’s premium rice varietals, grown in our Australia soil.

Update 1 - Sowing


This video introduces John – a SunRice rice grower. It provides an overview of rice production and an insight into sowing rice seeds. Sowing typically occurs in October and early November for the Australian rice industry, especially for SunRice’s key sushi rice varieties.

Update 2 – Growing


The warm, sunny weather and lush, green rice fields will transport you to the fertile Riverina region in NSW, Australia, as we check in with John on the progress of his Koshihikari rice crop.

Update 3 - Harvest


John’s Koshihikari rice is now ready for harvesting, a process that will take him three weeks. Learn about the hygiene, cleaning and storage processes that prevent cross-contamination and ensures the “koshi” rice maintains its premium quality.

Update 4 - Milling


In the final update, John’s Koshihikari rice is now ready for milling, packaging and transportation from the SunRice mill in Leeton to not only the domestic market but to markets all across the world including specialty sushi restaurants.

History of rice


Rice is considered one of the most popular foods in the world. It has fed us for thousands of years and is the main source of nourishment for more than half the world’s population today. Plus, it's delicious.

The domestication of rice is considered one of the most important developments in human history. Beginning in China around 2500 BC, its cultivation initially spread throughout Sri Lanka and India. There are some reports the crop may have been introduced to Greece and the Mediterranean by returning members of Alexander the Great’s expedition to India around 344-324 BC. From China across to ancient Greece, from Persia to Africa, rice migrated across the continents and around the world.

In many cultures, rice is a symbol of life and fertility. It’s a staple food that partners perfectly with red meat, chicken, fish, seafood, tofu and vegetables and easily absorbs the flavour of stocks and sauces

Where did rice originate?

Rice was first cultivated thousands of years ago in Asia, in a broad arc stretching from eastern India through to Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Laos, northern Vietnam and southern China.

It's one of the oldest harvested crops known to man. Rice grains discovered at an excavation in South Korea in 2003 are said to be the earliest domesticated rice known. Carbon dating showed the grains to be around 15,000 years old – 3,000 years earlier than the previously accepted date for the origin of rice cultivation in China around 12,000 years ago.

The first written account of rice is found in a record on rice planting authorised by a Chinese emperor in 2800 BC.

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Rice facts


  • Up to 40 million people across the globe eat Australian rice every day
  • Australian rice growers are some of the most efficient and productive in the world and grow rice varieties ideal for the Australian climate.
  • The Riverina region of NSW where SunRice grows its rice, has long summer days and high summer temperatures without the humidity of tropical climates, which is well suited to the varieties of rice that Australia grows.
  • Each year state governments assess the irrigation water resource availability in the large water storage dams found in the upper reaches of the Australian Alps. They determine the water allocations for different users based on hierarchy and storage levels.
  • Most rice is grown using general security water that the state governments allocate. General security water is also used by irrigators to grow other annual crops like wheat or corn. Irrigators who hold general security licences receive their water last in the hierarchy of allocations, after high security water users that use water for permanent plantings, stock and domestic water, water for towns and recreational uses, and water for the environment
  • When allocations are low due to lower storage levels in dams, rice growers and general security irrigators are the first to have their allocations reduced. This means that rice isn’t usually grown in periods of drought and water shortages, making it an extremely sustainable crop.
  • The Australian rice industry was the first Australian agricultural industry to initiate biodiversity enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction strategies.
  • Australian rice is exported to over 50 countries including the Middle East, Japan and Hong Kong.
  • Australian rice growers have improved their water use efficiency by 60% in the last 10 years
  • The Australian rice industry was the first industry to initiate a project to return water to the environment through the Living Murray initiative.
  • Rice is Australia’s third largest cereal grain export, and the ninth largest agricultural export. The rice industry generates around $800 million revenue per annum, with around $500 million of this coming from value-added exports.
  • The Australian rice industry has a fully integrated supply chain and the rice that is sold is grown, dried and stored, milled, packaged, marketed and sold both locally and internationally.
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Is rice a grain?


Rice is a cereal, related to other cereal grass plants such as wheat, oats and barley.

It completes its entire life cycle within six months, from planting to harvesting. It's also semi-aquatic, which means it can grow partly on land and partly submerged in water. Most cultivated rice comes from either the Oryza sativa, O. glaberrima, or O. rufipogon species.

Rice plants in the Riverina start their life as individual grains sown in irrigated fields that have been landformed to maximise water productivity. They grow to become green, grassy plants about 60-100 cm tall. Each plant contains many heads full of rice grains that turn golden indicating the plant is ready to harvest.

Rice is generally divided into two types of species: Indica (adapted to tropical climates like South-East Asia) and Japonica (adapted to more temperate climates like in Australia). Indica varieties are usually characterised by having long, slender grains that stay separate and are fluffy once cooked, while Japonica varieties are smaller, round and when cooked are classed as ‘softer’ cooking and are sticky and moist. The Australian rice industry produces mostly Japonica types of rice, although some Indica characteristics have been introduced through a rice-breeding program.

What is in a grain of Rice?

The rice grain is made of three main layers - the hull or husk, the bran and germ, and the inside kernel, or endosperm.

The hull: The rice hull or husk is a hard, protective outer layer that people cannot eat. The hull is removed when the grain is milled.

Rice bran: Underneath the hull is the bran and germ layer, which is a thin layer of skin which adheres it all together. This layer gives brown rice its colour. White rice is just brown rice with the bran and germ layer removed.

Endosperm: The endosperm is the inside of the rice grain, which is hard and white and contains lots of starch.

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Where is SunRice rice grown in Australia?


Australian rice is grown in the Murrumbidgee and Murray Valleys of southern New South Wales, collectively known as the Riverina. There are also small areas grown in northern Victoria and in the tropics of north Queensland. Rice growing is concentrated in this southern region due to the large areas of flat land with suitable clay-based soils, availability of water, wide blue skies and long summer days making it the ideal rice growing area and the highest yielding rice area in the world. The industry has built up rice storage and milling infrastructure which are relatively close to the Port of Melbourne, one of the main ports from which Australian Rice is exported.

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Rice production in Australia


Why is rice grown in Australia?

Rice is grown on every continent on earth, except Antarctica. In Australia, we specialise in medium grain rice - a niche variety of rice only grown in a handful of countries. We have also been successful at breeding various other varieties of rice ideally suited to our climate and favoured by our markets.

The Riverina’s climate and heavy soils are uniquely suited to the production of high quality rice. Heavy soils have high water holding properties, allowing the rice plant enough water to grow while minimising losses due to soil seepage. The Riverina’s summer sunshine and warm temperatures also provide the right conditions for the rice to flourish. Australian rice growers consistently achieve high yielding and high quality crops of rice, while using less water than any other country in the world. As a result, our Australian-grown Japonica is highly sought after in international markets, including the Middle East, Japan and the Pacific.

Should rice even be grown in Australia given water scarcity?

More than half of the world's population relies on rice as their staple food, yet less than 10% of all the rice grown on the planet is available for global trade. The allocation of water to grow a staple food like rice in a time of increasing global food scarcity is a relevant and important use of this resource.

Is irrigating rice a wasteful use of water?

Australian rice growers are efficient and sophisticated producers of rice:

  • Due to their processes, they use less water than other countries – 50% less than the global average.
  • They achieve high yields.
  • They operate under strict environmental controls.
  • They are also rapid adopters of new technology.

Australian growers are committed to sustainable farm practices – growers recycle all of their water and use the moisture left in the soil after harvest to plant another grain crop.

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The Rice Growing Process
How a rice plant grows

Rice Planning


Rice farmers grow rice in a rotation with a range of other crops such as wheat, barley and canola, whilst some have also incorporated a mixed farming approach adding livestock and pastures into their farm plans. This farm planning, assists them in managing the most efficient use of the natural resources on their farm and ensures they have the most effective rotational system in place.

Most farms use laser-guided land levelling techniques to prepare the ground for production. Laser levelling is one of the most effective and widely adopted techniques to improve water management. Farmers have precise control over the flow of water on and off the paddock. Such measurement strategies have contributed to a 60% improvement in water use efficiency.

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Rice Sowing


Rice seeds are planted from mid-October to early November in the Riverina. Some of the rice grown in the Riverina is planted using aircraft; where experienced agricultural pilots use satellite guidance technology to spread pre germinated seed accurately over already flooded fields.

Over the past 10 years many farmers have moved away from aerial sowing and instead direct drill the rice into dry ground prior to flushing the paddock with water. This change in sowing practice has dramatically helped rice growers decrease their water use when growing rice crops.

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Rice Growing


Through November until February, the rice plant grows a main stem and a number of tillers. Each rice plant will produce four or five tillers. Every tiller grows a flowering head or panicle. The panicle forms at the base of the stem called panicle initiation (PI) during which the plant is most susceptible to sterilisation if exposed to cold temperatures at night. Farmers keep their water levels high during this growth stage as the water acts as a buffer and protects the oncoming grain development. As the plant matures into March, the heads of rice fill with grain and turn golden yellow, indicating the crop is ready for harvest.

Over the course of the growing season, water levels on the rice crop vary from 5-25cm of water. This is dependent on the growth stage of the crop. As a rule of thumb, the crop requires a higher level of water as it grows and matures before then decreasing the levels when it matures. Cool night temperatures during PI also warrant deeper water levels to protect the oncoming grain development.

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Rice Harvesting


As the grain begins to mature, the farmers ‘lock up’ the water on the bays. This means no water leaves the paddock, it is fully utilised by the rice plant. Once the rice plants are ready for harvest the farmers begin to drain their paddocks into their water recycle drains ready to be used for another crop. Once the soil has dried out enough, the rice is ready to be harvested.

Farmers use large, conventional grain harvesters to mechanically harvest rice in Autumn.

Once harvested, the rice is commonly named paddy rice. This is the name given to unmilled rice with its protective husk in place.

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Storing Rice


Once harvested, a truck transports it to one of the industry’s paddy storage facilities, where segregation occurs according to variety. Rice storage bins are fitted with computer-linked sensors that monitor grain storage conditions and keep the rice at a suitable temperature and moisture level.

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Rice processing


Rice mill

Australian rice mills use some of the most advanced equipment and are extremely efficient.

When the storage manager receives orders and shipping instructions, the rice is trucked from one of 16 rice storage and drying facilities to one of two industry mills located in the north and south of the Riverina. The industry also has three stockfeed manufacturing plants.

Milling Rice steps

Step one – Removal of hard protective husk.

The rice husk is the protective layer surrounding the grain. Once removed, the rice grain is packaged as brown rice. Because it still contains the rice germ and outer bran layers, brown rice contains more fibre and vitamins than white rice.

Step two – Removal of the germ and brown layers

Gentle milling removes the germ and bran layers from the grain to expose a white starch centre. The polished white starch centre is what we know as white rice.

Rice by-products

By–products from the growing and processing of rice create many valuable new products. Rice husks, rice stubble, rice bran, broken rice and rice straw are used as common ingredients in horticultural, livestock, industrial, household, building and food products.

Rice husks

The rice husk is the hard, protective shell on the grain. The removal of the rice husk is the first stage of rice milling. Rice husks are the main by-product of rice production. For every one million tonnes of paddy rice harvested, about 200 000 tonnes of rice husk is produced. Rice husks are used in 2 main ways.

  • raw - animal bedding, growing seedlings, improving mulch for gardens.
  • ground and processed – is used in stock feed, potting mixes and pet litter.

Rice stubble

Rice stubble is the stalks and roots of the rice plant left in the ground after it has been harvested.

Rice stubble is very thick and difficult to deal with. Livestock graze on recently harvested paddocks and eat some of the rice stubble. A portion of the remaining stubble is usually burnt off and a winter cereal crop, such as wheat, is planted. On some rice farms, rice stubble is left to break down naturally and is incorporated into the soil, to improve the soil structure. Some stubble is baled and removed from the paddock as rice straw. The majority of this is used as stockfeed to supplement diets in mostly beef and dairy cattle. Additionally, due to its slow rate of breakdown and weed free nature, it makes excellent garden mulch.

Rice bran

Rice bran is the outer layer of the brown rice grain. The rice bran is removed during the milling process if white rice is to be produced.

Stabilised rice bran is sold as a health food in supermarkets and health food shops, or to food manufacturers who use it as an ingredient in foods such as crispbreads and breakfast cereals.

Unstabilised rice bran can be used in stockfeed and for other animal and industrial products.

Broken rice grains

During the rice milling process some of the rice grains break. Most of these broken grains are removed from the milling process. The larger broken rice grains are used in pet foods and stock feed, or breakfast cereals. The smaller broken rice grains are ground into rice flour which can be used in baby foods, snack foods, including rice crackers, muesli bars, or as a baking ingredient. Ground broken rice grains are also used in manufactured foods, such as sausages and milk powder drinks.

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